Victoria Shaffer is a researcher and professor at the University of Missouri. Victoria focuses on applying decision psychology and behavioral economics to medical decision making. In particular, she is researching judgment and decision making and how they impact the design of patient decision support tools.

Tim and Victoria met working on a field research project with Dan Ariely, PhD because of her work on non-monetary rewards with Scott Jeffrey, PhD. She was pushing back on common sense preferences, such as money is the best motivator, just as she is today with her work in the medical field.

Our conversation with Victoria began on familiar ground: the preference for cash as a reward and how it’s actually less effective than non-monetary rewards in incentive schemes. But we soon turned to the very personal journey of how she and her mother dealt with decisions surrounding her father’s diagnosis with cancer. Her personal journey became the foundation for important research to help patients, their loved ones and the caregivers communicate more effectively through stories. 

It’s a fascinating discussion and we hope you enjoy it. 

 

Links

Victoria Shaffer: https://psychology.missouri.edu/people/shaffer

Shelly Taylor on Biases and Mental Health: http://humancond.org/_media/papers/taylor_brown_88_illusion_and_well_being.pdf

Hal Arkes: https://psychology.osu.edu/people/arkes.1

Decision Support Tools: https://www.healthit.gov/topic/safety/clinical-decision-support

“Being Mortal” by Atul Gawande: http://atulgawande.com/book/being-mortal/

MD Anderson Cancer Center: https://www.mdanderson.org/

Advance Directives: https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/advance-care-planning-healthcare-directives

Palliative Care: https://getpalliativecare.org/whatis/

Peter Ubel – Duke: https://www.fuqua.duke.edu/faculty/peter-ubel

Affective Forecasting Errors: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affective_forecasting

Columbia Records: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_Records

Dan Gilbert: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Gilbert_(psychologist)

 

Kurt Nelson, PhD: https://www.linkedin.com/in/kurtwnelson/

Tim Houlihan: https://www.linkedin.com/in/tim-houlihan-b-e/

 

Music

Van Halen: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9X6e7uctAww

Black Sabbath: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5s7_WbiR79E

Ozzy Osbourne: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtHEN518VCM

Styx:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5XcKBmdfpWs

Depeche Mode: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=diT3FvDHMyo

The Cure: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hXCKLJGLENs

Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UQ9NaqjeDGU

James Taylor: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sWGK_fWKb4U

Kurt and Tim were invited to attend the Norms and Behavioral Change (NoBeC) workshop at the University of Pennsylvania on October 17 and 18, 2019, and what we experienced blew us away. We were impressed with a terrific diversity of academic fields studying social norms, the great work they are doing, and the generosity of the community (at UPenn as well as the behavioral science researchers from around the world).

This gathering was very different from industry assemblies we’ve attended, which in and of itself was not a surprise. However, there were three noteworthy differences. First, the lineup of speakers was heavily weighted toward researchers with findings on projects involving social norms. Second, academic audience members held speakers accountable for rigorous processes and the descriptions of their results. Lastly, the Q&A at the end of each presentation was filled with animated questions from economists, behavioral economists, sociologists, political scientists, philosophers, strategists, law professors, and of course, psychologists. The cross-disciplinary aspect of this group reinforced the need for more diverse thinking in the business world.

We came away with a greater appreciation of the role that social norms play in our behaviors and decision making as well as the tremendous research that’s being conducted on related topics.

We will be publishing our series of interviews with researchers from the workshop in the coming weeks, and we hope you enjoy them as much as we did.

 

Links

University of Pennsylvania Master of Behavioral and Decision Sciences: https://www.sas.upenn.edu/lps/graduate/mbds

Paul Hebert knows incentives. He is the Vice President of Individual Performance Strategy at Creative Group, Inc. and a writer, speaker and consultant and is widely considered an expert on motivation and incentives focused on influencing behaviors that drive business results. Paul has been interviewed by the BBC and USA TODAY because of his work applying solid psychological theory to sales motivation.

Paul, Kurt and Tim recently co-authored an eBook called “The 7 Deadly Sins to Avoid in Your Next Sales Incentive.” The purpose was to help sales managers who are struggling to maximize their effort and results when they use sales incentives. In the podcast, we recap the most common sins committed by sales managers and discuss ways of avoiding them.

  1. Spread goals evenly
  2. Give a huge prize to the top performer
  3. Must be above quota to earn
  4. We’ll figure it out behind the scenes
  5. Under-quota performers can’t be winners
  6. It’s all about the Benjamins 

We hope you enjoy the discussion and recommend you download the eBook for reference.

Links

Paul Hebert: https://www.linkedin.com/in/paulhebert/

7 Deadly Sins Ebook: https://hubs.ly/H0kR8g60

Paul Hebert’s Blog: http://wphebert.com

Fistful of Talent Blog: http://fistfuloftalent.com/author/paulhebert

 

Elliot Aronson, PhD: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliot_Aronson

Zeno of Citium: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeno_of_Citium

Steenburgh and Ahearne “Motivating Salespeople”: https://hbr.org/2012/07/motivating-salespeople-what-really-works

Ariely and Heyman “A Tale of Two Markets”: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00757.x?journalCode=pssa

Jeffrey and Shaffer “The Effects of Tangible Rewards”: https://theirf.org/research/the-effects-of-tangible-rewards-versus-cash-rewards-in-a-sales-tournament-a-field-experiment/1638/

The guy who traded a paper clip for a house: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_red_paperclip

The Price is Right: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Price_Is_Right

Estonia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonia

 

Musical Links

“Eve of Destruction” by Barry McGuire: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfZVu0alU0I

“Timothy” by The Bouys: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DGNdvKvbxYQ

“DOA” by Bloodrock: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WQptxygSM8

First Avenue: https://first-avenue.com/

Trip Shakespeare: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PvyrRupOf0

Trip Shakespeare “The Slacks” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wkOepnPJS3o

Dan Wilson: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Wilson_(musician)

Tragically Hip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XN25TcN--I8

Morphine: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morphine_(band)

Lucius: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4QSF8bgqgC4

Semisonic: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xGytDsqkQY8

Trampled by Turtles: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PcoPedyXJVc

And the Professors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0kxiVQI3XeA

The Mighty Pines: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yHrR8LhTKfo

Ewert & the 2 Dragons: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ddCsOTWz7gI

October 9, 2019

Grooving: On Goals

Goals are often misunderstood. Goals are much more than just objectives that are handed down to subordinates. Rather, goals are self-determined in the best cases, and at the very least, are set collaboratively to get the most out of them.

We discuss Goal Setting Theory (GST), results from research that Tim conducted, and we address the three key elements that must be included to maximize the effect of the goals: 1. The goals must be perceived as achievable. Without perceived achievability, the goal is not accepted and, therefore, not a goal. 2. There must be some involvement with those who are executing the goals. If the goal is handed down from on high without meaningful participation from the person who’s going to act on it, it’s not a goal. 3. There must be a positive relationship between the goal and the reward (including a perceived assessment of risk). As the risk of achievability increases, so must the perceived value of the reward.

This short grooving session also delves into some myths and how to deal with them. Ultimately, we want listeners to come away with a clear understanding of the powerful results than can be obtained with practical and effective use of self-selected goals.

 

Links

Zig Ziglar: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zig_Ziglar

Goal-Setting Theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goal_setting

Edward Locke: https://peakon.com/us/blog/future-work/edwin-locke-goal-setting-theory/

Gary Latham:  http://www.rotman.utoronto.ca/FacultyAndResearch/Faculty/FacultyBios/Latham

Howard Klein: https://fisher.osu.edu/people/klein.12

Ran Kivetz: https://www8.gsb.columbia.edu/cbs-directory/detail/rk566

George Loewenstein: https://www.cmu.edu/dietrich/sds/people/faculty/george-loewenstein.html

Saurabh Bhargava: https://www.cmu.edu/dietrich/sds/people/faculty/saurabh-bhargava.html

Raghuram Bommaraju: https://www.isb.edu/faculty-research/faculty/directory/bommaraju-raghuram

Raghuram Bommaraju & Sebastian Hohenberg on self-selected goals: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1509/jm.17.0002

 

Kurt Nelson, PhD: kurt@lanterngroup.com

Tim Houlihan: tim@behavioralchemy.com

 

Brad Shuck, PhD is an Associate Professor in the Department of Educational Leadership, Evaluation, and Organizational Development at the University of Louisville.  He is also recognized as one of the world’s most knowledgeable experts on employee engagement and is a sought-after speaker from around the world. 

Brad’s work is recognized as some of the most influential research in the field of employee engagement and his insights are invaluable. On top of that, Brad is a drummer, a lover of all sorts of music and our discussion traversed topics from the social determinants of health to having parents that were patient enough to allow him to learn drums as a child.

In our grooving session, Kurt and Tim dive deeper into creating a work culture of meaning and we ask the musical question: how does moving from town to town as a child impact your musical tastes?

And don’t forget to join us for our 100th Episode Celebration on October 17, 2019 in Philadelphia! Eventbrite link: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/behavioral-grooves-100th-episode-event-tickets-73159537145

 

Links

Brad Shuck email: drbshuck@gmail.com 

Brad Shuck web page: www.drbshuck.com 

Brad Shuck Google Connection: @drbshuck

Teresa Amabile: https://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/profile.aspx?facId=6409

 

Brad’s Research

  • Shuck, B., Alagaraja, M., Immekus, J., Honeycutt, M., & Cumberland, D. (2019). Does compassion matter for leadership: a two-stage sequential equal status mixed method exploratory study of compassionate leader behavior and connections to performance in human resource development. Human Resource Development Quarterly, X, XX-XX. doi: 10.1002/hrdq.21369 
  • Shuck, B., Peyton-Roberts, T., Zigarmi, D. (2018). Employee perceptions of the work environment, motivational outlooks, and employee work intentions: An HR practitioner’s dream or nightmare? Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20, 197-213. doi: 10.1177/1523422318757209
  • Shuck, B., #Osam, K., Zigarmi, D., & Nimon, K. (2017). Definitional and conceptual muddling: Identifying the positionality of employee engagement and defining the construct. Human Resource Development Review, 16, 263-293. doi: 0.1177/1534484317720622
  • Shuck, B., Nimon, K., & Zigarmi, D. (2017). Untangling the predictive nomological validity of employee engagement: Decomposing variance in employee engagement using job attitude measures. Group and Organizational Management42, 79-112. doi: 10.1177/1059601116642364 
  • Shuck, B., Alagaraja, M., Rose, K., Owen, J., #Osam, K., & Bergman, M. (2017). The health-related upside of employee engagement: Exploratory evidence and implications for theory and practice. Performance Improvement Quarterly30, 165-178. doi: 10.1002/piq.21246   
  • Shuck, B., Adelson, J., & Reio, T. (2017). The employee engagement scale: Initial evidence for construct validity and implications for theory and practice. Human Resource Management56, 953-977. doi: 10.1002/hrm.21811 
  • Rose, K., Shuck, B., #Twyford, D., & Bergman, M. (2015)Skunked: An integrative review exploring the consequences of dysfunctional leaders and implications for the employees who work for them. Human Resource Development Review14, 64-90. doi: 10.1177/1534484314552437

 

Musical Links

Folk Music: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_music

A Lion Named Roar: http://www.alionnamedroar.com/

Mumford & Sons: https://www.mumfordandsons.com/

For King and Country: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_King_%26_Country_(band)

John Coltrane: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EH3mb3oXCpw

Rodd Stewart: https://www.rodstewart.com/

Kenny G: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenny_G