Listen to Kurt and Tim’s spooky Halloween Special about some common biases that can seem a bit scary. But don’t fear, the scariest thing about this episode is actually Kurt and Tim’s jokes! Find out why some biases are a bit spooky, what makes us susceptible to them, and most importantly how we can overcome them. 

Thanks for taking the time to learn a bit about how to overcome the biases you may find impacting your life. If you’d like to support our work further, please consider donating a treat (no tricks please!) on our Patreon page: Your financial support helps with all our production costs.


Behavioral Grooves Twitter: @behavioralgroov

Kurt Nelson Twitter: @motivationguru

Tim Houlihan Twitter: @thoulihan

Common Biases and Heuristics:

Scary Biases: 

Behavioral Grooves Patreon page:

Rudeness is contagious, in a similar way to a virus. When experiencing a rude encounter, our brain perceives it like a threat. And once we’ve tuned in to this low-level threat, we’re more likely to notice it around us, and therefore more likely to display rude behavior ourselves.

Our guest on this episode is Dr Trevor Foulk PhD, Assistant Professor of Management & Organization at the University of Maryland. His well published research on deviant workplace behaviors and workplace power dynamics, has been featured in Time magazine, Harvard Business Review, and the Wall Street Journal.

Trevor walks us through what rude behavior actually is, what our evolutionary response to it is and how we can take steps to mitigate the effects of it. We are also delighted to talk about Trevor’s research around the way power changes our behavior, and what impact a feeling of paranoia can add to the dynamics. And to Tim’s delight, Trevor also boosts our understanding of how music affects work performance. 

Truth be told, our conversation with Trevor has opened our eyes into how rude behavior really impacts people. And in our Grooving Session, at the end of the episode, Kurt and Tim recap the ways Trevor’s research can improve our lives.

If you enjoy listening to our podcast, you can become an exclusive Behavioral Grooves Patreon member at 


(3:28) Welcome and speed round

(8:38) How rudeness is contagious.

(11:45) Why do we view rudeness as threatening?

(13:10) The solutions to rudeness.

(15:36) How our response to rudeness differs from holding a grudge.

(17:52) Are certain personality types more susceptible to rudeness?

(19:15) What effect does rudeness have on medical professionals?

(22:59) Can gratitude have the opposite effect to rudeness?

(24:27) How the Anchoring Effect is affected by rudeness.

(28:43) How does a feeling of power change our behavior?

(35:40) Paranoia and power.

(39:51) How does music influence performance?

(47:35) Grooving Session with Kurt and Tim discussing what we’ve learnt from Trevor’s interview.

© 2021 Behavioral Grooves


Dr Trevor Foulk PhD: 

Foulk, T.A., Woolum, A., & Erez, A. (2016). Catching rudeness is like catching a cold: The contagion effects of low-intensity negative behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology: 

Riskin, A. Erez, A., Foulk, T.A., Kugelman, A., Gover, A., Shoris, I, Riskin, K., & Bamberger, P.A. (2015). The impact of rudeness on medical team performance: A randomized trial. Pediatrics: 

Foulk, T.A., Lanaj, K., Tu, M., Erez, A., & Archambeau, L. (2018)  Heavy is the head that wears the crown: An ator-centric approach to psychological power, abusive behavior, and perceived incivility.  Academy of Management Journal: 

John Bargh: Episode 155. Dante, Coffee and the Unconscious Mind:

John Bargh, Episode 248. Do We Control Situations or Do Situations Control Us? 

Vanessa Bohns, Episode 253. Why You Don‘t Need to be Powerful to be Influential:

Musical Links 

Lyle Lovett and Robert Earl Keen “This Old Porch”:

Jim Croce “Operator”:

Rancid “Fall Back Down”:

Jimmy Buffett “Margaritaville”:

How do we make decisions? What factors influence the final outcome? Do default settings change our preferences? Every decision we make; from choosing something on a menu to deciding whether to be an organ donor, is influenced by our environmental context and the default selections presented to us. 

Professor Eric J. Johnson has distilled the latest behavioral science research into his newest book, The Elements of Choice: Why the Way We Decide Matters, and we are thrilled to talk with him about it on this episode of Behavioral Grooves.

Eric is Director of the Center for Decision Sciences at Columbia Business School at Columbia University. He examines the interaction between Behavioral Decision Research, Economics and consumer decision making. The implications of his research come together in real world applications such as public policy and marketing.

Eric talks with us about how options are presented to decision-makers and how framing affects choices. Our decisions are “assembled”, as Eric likes to put it, in the moment and are not necessarily pre-determined by our preferences. Choice architects have very influential power over decision-makers but Eric highlights to us that we are all designers, and with that comes a moral responsibility. 


(3:56) How Leading Human™ can help with returning to the office.

(6:28) Welcome and speed round.

(8:00) How interference affects our decision making. 

(10:32) The controversy of organ donation defaults.

(16:32) We are all designers using the tools of choice architecture.

(19:21) How sludge impacts our decision making.

(22:42) How context influences defaults.

(26:14) What factors moderate the impact of default settings?

(29:01) Making choices in the real world vs. classic economic thinking.

(32:18) The effects of asking people how long they will live vs. what year they expect to die.

(35:04) Smart defaults: defaults set specifically for you.

(38:02) What is Query Theory?

(39:15) Choice architecture around vaccinations.

(42:44) What area does Eric want to research in the future?

(44:44) What music does Eric default to?

(52:24) Grooving Session with Kurt and Tim on how to apply Eric’s research to our lives.


© 2021 Behavioral Grooves


Behavioral Grooves Patreon:

Leading Human™ Workbook and Playbook:

Leading Human™, Free Whitepaper Download:

Leading Human™ Workshop on Dec 14th, 2021 (more dates to be added soon):

Promo Code: GROOVERS to receive $20 off (limited time offer for listeners).

The Elements of Choice: Why the Way We Decide Matters” by Eric J. Johnson:

"Do Defaults Save Lives?" by Johnson, Eric, and Daniel Goldstein. Science 302 (2003): 

Sludge: What Stops Us from Getting Things Done and What to Do about It” by Cass Sunstein:

Tim Kachuriak, Episode 221: Donating Our Money Is Irrational, So Why Do We Do It? Tim Kachuriak Explains Our Motivations:

Time to Retire: Why Americans Claim Benefits Early and How to Encourage Them to Delay” In Behavioral Science and Policy (2015). Coauthor(s): Kirstin Appelt, Melissa Knoll, Eric Johnson, Jonathan Westfall: 

Musical Links 

Eric Dolphy “Out to Lunch!”:

Django Reinhardt “Three-Fingered Lightning”: 

David Grisman Quartet “Dawg Funk”: 

Jerry Garcia “How Sweet It Is To Be Loved By You”: 


Caroline Shaw & Sō Percussion “Let The Soil Play a Simple Part”: 

George E. Lewis “Mind In Flux” at the BBC Proms 2021: 

Bruce Springsteen “Tougher Than The Rest”: 

Anxiety in the workplace has always been present, even pre-pandemic but rates of anxiety, particularly among young employees, have worsened since 2020. So what obligation do organizations have to their employees' mental health? How can managers recognize the signs of anxiety, and how can we help our colleagues with those feelings?

Following our incredibly popular first episode with Chester Elton in July 2021, on showing gratitude (episode 238), we are thrilled to be talking with him again about anxiety in the workplace. As a best-selling author, speaker and executive coach, Chester, and his co-author Adrian have shown over and over again, that the key to really successful companies is really successful relationships with employees. And because of the pandemic, we wanted to talk with Chester about their most recent book; Anxiety at Work: 8 Strategies to Help Teams Build Resilience, Handle Uncertainty, and Get Stuff Done:

Thank you to all of you who have subscribed to our show, written a review or shared an episode with your friends. Please also consider donating a small amount each month to our work, through our Patreon site: 

© 2021 Behavioral Grooves 


(3:03) Speed round questions.

(5:30) Is anxiety in the workplace increasing or decreasing?

(10:11) How to manage with empathy, not just sympathy.

(14:59) Unleashing employees' potential.

(20:17) The number one cause of anxiety and how managers can recognize it.

(23:34) Showing vulnerability as a manager.

(29:12) Will people take advantage of mental health days off?

(32:07) How to deal with your own perfectionism and anxiety.

(36:57) The ways you can join Chester’s community.

(40:22) Chester’s anti-anxiety playlist.

(44:05) Chester’s kind promise to listeners.

(45:00) Grooving Session discussing how to apply Chester’s insight to our lives.

Books by Chester Elton and Adrian Gostick

Anxiety at Work: 8 Strategies to Help Teams Build Resilience, Handle Uncertainty, and Get Stuff Done:

Leading with Gratitude: Eight Leadership Practices for Extraordinary Business Results:

All In: How the Best Managers Create a Culture of Belief and Drive Big Results:

The Best Team Wins: The New Science of High Performance:

The Orange Revolution: How One Great Team Can Transform an Entire Organization:


Behavioral Grooves Patreon:

Chester Elton:

Chester Elton, Episode 238: Who Makes You Feel Grateful? Tell Them!

We Thrive Together: A safe community to talk about anxiety and stress with over 500 members.

Anxiety at Work with Adrian Gostick & Chester Elton:

The Boy, the Mole, the Fox and the Horse” by Charlie Mackesy: 

Nicole Malachowski: 

HR Leaders Podcast with Chris Rainey: 

Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, Episode 246: Are You More Honest with Google or Your Friends? 

The Heart of Business: Leadership Principles for the Next Era of Capitalism” by Hubert Joly: 

Garry Ridge at WD-40: 

Musical Links 

Pharrell Williams “Happy”:

Monty Python, Eric Idle “Always Look on the Bright Side of Life”: 

The Beatles “Good Day Sunshine”: 

The Beatles “Fixing A Hole”: 

What life habits keep our brain healthy? How does our mind respond to trauma? And why does the way we talk about suicide and mental health make such a difference to those who are struggling? We discuss all these topics with neuroscience researcher Dr Daniel Almeida.

To mark World Mental Health Day on Sunday, Oct 10, 2021, we decided to delve into the science behind mental health. And who better to help us with this topic than Daniel who has been named as one of Forbes 30 under 30 in science. His incredible work as a neuroscience researcher in the Douglas Research Centre at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, involves psychological autopsies to understand the molecular impacts of severe childhood abuse on the brains of individuals who died by suicide.

As you can imagine, this episode is full of difficult yet important topics. But what struck us most about Daniel was how upbeat and positive he is about his work and the difference it’s making to people’s lives. Daniel kindly shares his top 5 healthy brain habits that we can all adopt to improve our mental wellbeing. 

If you, or someone you know needs help with their mental health, please use one of the resources in the links below. 

Mental Health Support

Suicide Prevention Lifeline (US):

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: National Helpline (US): 1-800-662-HELP (4357). SAMHSA’s National Helpline is a free, confidential, 24/7, 365-day-a-year treatment referral and information service (in English and Spanish) for individuals and families facing mental and/or substance use disorders. 

The Canada Suicide Prevention Service:

Samaritans (UK): 

United for Global Mental Health (List of support networks around the world): 

For those looking for information on how to support others:
For the general public looking to be trained in mental health first aid and/or suicide prevention:
Living Works (US): 
Mental Health First Aid Canada:


(6:29) Speed round.

(10:14) Does talking about suicide help?

(14:15) Why it’s very important to talk about “dying by suicide” instead of “committing suicide”.

(16:17) About Daniel’s work as a neuroscientist.

(17:47) What are the links between childhood trauma and suicide?

(25:16) What age are children most sensitive to the effects of trauma?

(31:19) How the type of trauma experienced by a child matters.

(33:36) How resilience is more like a sword than a shield.

(35:29) What are the 5 best brain health habits?

(41:57) What is a brain bank and how are psychological autopsies used?

(44:30) What music isn’t noise pollution for Daniel?

(46:24) Music and the brain.

(48:13) Grooving Session with Kurt and Tim; how to apply Daniel’s work to your life.

© 2021 Behavioral Grooves


World Mental Health Day: 

Leading Human™ Workbook and Playbook:

Leading Human™, Free Whitepaper Download:

Leading Human™ Workshop on Dec 14th, 2021 (more dates to be added soon):

Promo Code: GROOVERS to receive $20 off (limited time offer for listeners).

Episode 220: How Do You Become Influential? Jon Levy Reveals His Surprising Secrets:

Dr Brenda Mildner – Mother of Psychological worked on bilateral hypocantim removal:

Donald Hebb:,which%20was%20published%20in%201949. 

Molecular impacts of childhood abuse on the human brain”  Ibrahim, P.; Almeida, D.; Nagy, C.; Turecki, G. (2021): 

A Slice of the Suicidal Brain: What Have Postmortem Molecular Studies Taught Us?” Almeida, D. and Turecki, G. (2016): 

“What Happened to You?: Conversations on Trauma, Resilience, and Healing”, by Oprah Winfrey and Bruce Perry: 

Brain structure of dancers and musicians

Support Behavioral Grooves by donating on Patreon:  

Musical Links 

Gladys Knight & The Pips “Midnight Train to Georgia”: 

Whitney Houston “I Will Always Love You”: 

The Supremes “Where Did Our Love Go”: 

Stevie Wonder “As”: 

Marconi Union - Weightless Playlist:

The clearest indicators of our financial solvency are based on the behaviors we exhibit with our investments. Dr. Daniel Crosby PhD is a psychologist, behavioral finance expert, asset manager and bestselling author of four books including “The Behavioral Investor”: We examine with him the question of whether financial success ultimately brings us happiness? Surprisingly it can, but not in the ways that we think it does. 

Having studied the growing list of 200 odd behavioral biases and heuristics, Daniel has whittled them down to what he describes as the four “Big Daddy” biases: ego, emotion, attention and conservatism. We learn about why these matter so much and interestingly what Coke Zero can teach us about our biases!

Daniel touches on his other bestselling book “You’re Not That Great”: which refreshingly embraces the fact that we are in fact all fairly average! That self esteem is built not by awarding prizes for participation, but by taking a risk, working hard and acknowledging that occasionally we will fall flat on our face along the way!

In our Grooving Session with Kurt and Tim, following our interview with Daniel we talk about the ways that we can apply Daniel’s insights to improve our wellbeing and our relationships. [Tim quotes the infamous “Man in the Arena '' quote from Theodore Roosevelt but apologies, we incorrectly credited the quote to Eisenhower, not Roosevelt in the episode.] 

If you would like to invest in the work that Behavioral Grooves does to bring you interviews like Daniels every week, please support our Patreon page: thank you.


(3:09) Welcome and speed round.

(5:51) Why understanding people is vital to understanding markets.

(8:20) Daniel's journey into behavioral finance.

(11:02) What behavioral finance can help with beyond your bank balance.

(15:17) Can money really boost our happiness?

(20:05) The benefits of embracing our mediocrity. 

(24:30) How stress impacts performance.

(26:58) Meta-biases: ego, promotion, attention, conservatism.

(31:09) What Coke Zero can teach us about conservatism bias.

(36:51) Ethics and behavioral finance.

(41:09) What music does Daniel invest in?

(48:44) Grooving Session on how to apply Daniel’s work in our own lives.


© 2021 Behavioral Grooves

Books by Daniel Crosby

The Laws of Wealth: Psychology and the secret to investing success:

The Behavioral Investor:

You're Not That Great:

Personal Benchmark: Integrating Behavioral Finance and Investment Management 


Van Leeuwen Ice Cream Honeycomb:

“Subjective Well-Being and Income: Is There Any Evidence Of Satiation?” Betsy Stevenson and Justin Wolfers (2013): 

The Psychology of Money: Timeless lessons on wealth, greed, and happiness” by Morgan Housel: 

Daniel Crosby TEDx:

Nudge: The Final Edition” by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein: 

Barry Ritholtz, Episode 47. How to Reduce Evolutionary Panic:

The Rocket City Trash Pandas:

Sludge: What Stops Us from Getting Things Done and What to Do about It” by Cass Sunstein: 

At Uber, a New C.E.O Shifts Gears, The New Yorker: 

Trevor Foulk episode (publishing at the end of Oct 2021)

Seth Stephens-Davidowitz, Episode 246.  Are You More Honest with Google or Your Friends?

Vanessa Bohns, Episode 253. Why You Don‘t Need to be Powerful to be Influential:

Ben Parr, Episode 237. Attention: How to Capture It and Keep It with Ben Parr:

Musical Links 

Phoebe Bridgers “Kyoto”:

Elliot Smith “Angeles”: 

Radiohead “Creep”: 

Arcade Fire “The Suburbs”: 

Father John Misty “Real Love Baby”: 

Vampire Weekend “This Life”: 

Run The Jewels “Legend Has It”:

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